MCQs on Implementing change

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Change can be classified in relation to the extent of the change required and the speed with which that change needs to be achieved. Here on MCQs.CLUB
MCQs on Implementing change

MCQs on Implementing change

Change can be classified in relation to the extent of the change required and the speed with which that change needs to be achieved. Here on MCQs.CLUB we have written useful Multiple-Choice Questions (MCQs) on Implementing change that fully cover practice questions and quizzes on implementing change in an organization and workplace, the changing attitude in organisational behavior, the suggested steps towards Implementing Change in an Organization and the techniques for Implementing Change in an Organization. These mcq on organizational change with answers are also useful for competitive exams, professional accountancy exams and business management exams.

  1. Change can be classified in relation to the extent of the change required and the speed with which that change needs to be achieved.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Which of the following is correct?
    1. Change can range from an all-at-once, ‘big bang’ change to a series of step-by-step, incremental changes.
    2. The extent of change can range from an overall transformation of an organisation’s central assumptions, culture and beliefs to a realignment of its existing assumptions.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Change is either incremental or transformational, and the approach to managing change is described as being either reactive or proactive.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Which of the following is correct for ‘Incremental change’?
    1. Incremental change is characterised by a series of small steps, and does not challenge existing organisational assumptions or culture.
    2. It is a gradual process, and can be seen as an extension of the past. Management will feel that they are in control of the change process.
    3. Incremental change is reversible. If the change does not work out as planned, the organisation can revert to its old ways of doing things.
    4. All of the above
  1. Which of the following is correct for ‘Transformational change’?
    1. Transformational change is characterised by major, significant change being introduced relatively quickly. The existing organisational structures and the organisational culture are changed.
    2. Transformational change is likely to be a top-down process, initiated, and possibly imposed, by senior management.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Transformational change may come about because:
    1. The organisation is faced with major external events that demand large-scale changes in response.
    2. The organisation anticipates major changes in the environment and initiates action to make shifts in its own strategy to cope with them.
    3. Strategic drift has led to deteriorating performance and so leaves the organisation now requiring significant changes to improve performance.
    4. All of the above
  1. The relative physical and organisational impacts of a change should also affect the way it is implemented. In this respect, change can be classified as:
    1. hard (mechanistic)
    2. soft (people based)
    3. Either A or B
    4. None

  1. A ‘hard’ model of change is similar to the ‘rational’ model of decision making. Hard models of change can be looked at as sequential phases such as:
    1. Define – clarify objectives; perform systems diagnostics and systems analysis
    2. Design – determine options; evaluate solutions
    3. Implement – implement solution; appraise and monitor performance
    4. All of the above
  1. Characteristics of hard change situations include:
    1. Environmental forces are relatively static
    2. The change environment is clearly defined and has minimal interaction with external forces
    3. The problem being addressed by the change can be clearly and concisely defined
    4. All of the above
  1. Characteristics of soft change situations include:
    1. The environment is likely to be volatile and complex
    2. The change environment is unbounded, and characterised by having many internal and external interactions
    3. It is difficult to define problem characteristics
    4. All of the above
  1. Which of the following is correct?
    1. The hard system model is most suitable where ‘difficulties’ can be easily identified. However, it is less suitable in situations where it is harder to define the problem, obtain information or come to conclusions.
    2. Soft models of change could be seen more like emergent strategies.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. The approaches can be taken to dealing with soft change situations are:
    1. Resolve the problem
    2. Solve the problem
    3. Dissolve the problem
    4. All of the above
  1. When considering a strategic change, managers need to analyse:
    1. The speed and extent of the change required.
    2. Whether management’s role is proactive or reactive
    3. Whether the change is hard (systems based) or soft (people based)
    4. All of the above
  1. Which of the following is correct?
    1. Many organisations have a poor track record of bringing about strategic change. Because they fail to grasp that it is the implementation of the change, rather than the formulation of it.
    2. For strategic change to become reality, it is necessary to change the way in which the individuals within an organisation behave.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None

  1. An examination of context of change leads to questions such as:
    1. Is the organisation able to achieve the change required?
    2. Does the context affect the means by which change should be achieved?
    3. Should the context itself be restructured as a preliminary to strategic change?
    4. Will constraints present in the context make it necessary to proceed in stages rather implementing the changes all at once?
    5. All of the above
  1. Once a change agent has considered the context of the change process, they can then select from several design choices which affect change implementation itself including:
    1. Change path – The change path refers to the type of change (the nature and scope of change) that needs to be undertaken for the required outcome to be achieved.
    2. Change start point – The change start point is the point where change is initiated and developed.
    3. Change style – The change style is the management style of the implementation.
    4. Change target – Deciding which organisational level to intervene at is an important design choice.
    5. Change interventions – The change interventions are the levers and mechanisms which need to be deployed to implement the change (i.e. Technical interventions, Political interventions)
    6. Change roles – This determines who is responsible for leading and implementing the changes.
    1. (I) (IV) and (VI) only
    2. (II) (III) and (VI) only
    3. All of the above
    4. None
  1. Top-down change –
    1. In a top-down change, the direction, control and initiation of the change comes from the strategic apex of the organisation.
    2. Top-down change usually involves a programme of change determined and implemented by the senior management or their representatives.
    3. Top-down change may need to be imposed on an organisation. In a crisis or turnaround situation, there may be no alternative but to impose change on the organisation.
    4. All of the above
  1. Bottom-up change –
    1. The logic behind emergent, or bottom-up change, is that the responsibility for change should not rest solely with senior management.
    2. Bottom-up change involves consultation with staff so that employees contribute to the themes and ideas in the changes.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Limitations to a bottom-up approach are:
    1. It can be slower to implement than a top-down approach.
    2. Senior management have less control over the change process
    3. Bottom-up change can produce much more unpredictable consequences
    4. All of the above
  1. Which of the following is correct for ‘Adaptive change’?
    1. Adaptive change is about making organisations more efficient, or better, at what they already do.
    2. Adaptive change occurs when an organisation’s environment changes slowly, and is altered in little stages.
    3. It minimises the resistance faced at any time.
    4. All of the above
  1. Which of the following is correct?
    1. Continuous change comprises small scale incremental changes, which do not alter the organisational paradigm.
    2. Discontinuous change results in a radical change in the firm’s environment or operations.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None

  1. Characteristics of discontinuous change include:
    1. Strategic vision – Discontinuous change is nearly always linked to a reshaping of the overall corporate strategy.
    2. Leadership – The leadership of discontinuous change cannot be delegated.
    3. Unclear future state – At the outset, it is impossible to know precisely where discontinuous change will lead.
    4. All of the above
  1. Organisational culture has a very important impact on the management of change. Every organisation will have its own cultural blueprint which dictates how it interacts with its environment and manages its people.
    1. The above statement is correct
    2. The above statement is incorrect
  1. Understanding the relationships between an organisation’s culture and its (changing) environment greatly assist the organisation in managing change.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. Which of the following is correct?
    1. Organisational culture is something we learn afresh each time we join a different workforce, and is therefore easy to pick up and put down as appropriate.
    2. National culture is something we are born into, and therefore is generally non-negotiable; it is something inherent to all of us.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Leading change is the most common activity that requires, and demonstrates, leadership. Leading change can, in effect, be seen as the essence of leadership, because it requires a whole range of leadership capabilities such as:
    1. Communicating and inspiring people to future visions
    2. Motivating and empowering people
    3. Influencing and handling conflict
    4. All of the above
  1. When planning communications about organisational changes, a leader must consider a number of issues including:
    1. The impact that the changes will have on different stakeholders
    2. Developing a clear, consistent message that is meaningful to the stakeholders
    3. Develop measurable objectives for the communications
    4. All of the above
  1. Styles of change management are:
    1. Education and communication, Collaboration/participation
    2. Intervention, Direction and Coercion/edict
    3. Both A&B
    4. None

  1. Which of the following is correct for ‘Education and communication’ style of change management?
    1. Education and communication is an approach based on persuasion, the reasons for change and the means by which it will be achieved are explained in detail to those affected by it.
    2. This style is appropriate when change is incremental.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Which of the following is correct for ‘Collaboration/participation’ style of change management?
    1. Collaboration, or participation, brings those affected by strategic change into the change management process.
    2. This approach may improve decision quality by bringing wider experience and knowledge to bear.
    3. It may be time-consuming and it will be subject to the influence of the existing culture and paradigm, which may limit its potential effectiveness.
    4. All of the above
  1. Which of the following style of change management explanations correct?
    1. Intervention style is undertaken by a change agent who delegates some aspects of the change process to teams or individuals, while providing guidance and retaining overall control.
    2. Direction style is a top-down style in which managerial authority is used to establish and implement a change programme based on a clear future strategy. It is thus suited to transformational change.
    3. Coercion style is an extreme form of direction, being based on the use of power to impose change. It is likely to provoke opposition due to the lack of participation or consultation, but it may be the best approach in times of confusion or crisis.
    4. All of the above
  1. What makes change go well?
    1. Effective support from senior management – active, visible, ongoing support throughout the life of the initiative, acting as role models and ambassadors for change
    2. Continuous and targeted communication throughout the project, tailored for different interested parties
    3. A well-planned and well-organised approach which is suited to the type of change being managed
    4. All of the above
  1. Why does change fail?
    1. Failure to create a powerful support base
    2. Vision not clearly developed and poorly communicated
    3. Systems, policies and skills not aligned
    4. Obstacles block the vision
    5. All of the above
  1. Coaching is one of the key developmental tools for encouraging workplace learning and growth. What key steps a coach should follow in a coaching session?
    1. Goals – identify the goals for the coaching session and for the learner in the short and longer term.
    2. Reality – the coach explores the current situation or the ‘reality’ now. Here the coach is trying to encourage the learner to identify the ‘gap’ between where they are now and where they want to be.
    3. Options – having identified the goals and the development gap, the coach then encourages the learner to identify possible development options.
    4. What – to agree what exactly the learner will do and when they will do it.
    5. All of the above
  1. Potential benefits of coaching and mentoring are:
    1. The process of explaining their ideas and issues to the coach or mentor helps the leader clarify their own thinking.
    2. An external coach or mentor should not be affected by politics or power struggles within the organisation.
    3. An external coach who has previously worked with other leaders in relation to leading change may also be able to bring in new ideas from outside the organisation.
    4. All of the above

  1. A key part of change management is about dealing with people, and unfortunately people are not always rational or logical. If organisations do not understand their people, and their reactions to potential changes, the risk of change programmes failing increases.
    1. The above statement is correct
    2. The above statement is incorrect
  1. Approaches to managing individual change include:
    1. Behavioural approach to change
    2. Cognitive approach to change
    3. Psychodynamic approach to change
    4. All of the above
  1. Behavioural approach to change –
    1. This approach focuses on how one individual can change another’s individual behaviour through reward and punishment in order to achieve intended results.
    2. This approach is founded on the idea that people’s emotions and problems are a result of the way they think.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Cognitive approach to change –
    1. This approach focuses on how one individual can change another’s individual behaviour through reward and punishment in order to achieve intended results.
    2. This approach is founded on the idea that people’s emotions and problems are a result of the way they think.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. A leader will not only have to identify the vision for change but also communicate that to the organisation. The challenge leaders face in any change situation will depend on the:
    1. Scale
    2. Timeframe
    3. Possible implications of the change
    4. All of the above
  1. Managing change is, in essence, a process of facilitating internal and external conflict resolution. What are the key steps as to how a leader can encourage those involved with change to be positive about that change?
    1. Establishing a climate of positivity – This is about focusing on the positive, rather than dwelling on negative aspects of the change.
    2. Create ‘readiness’ for change – this is about helping people understand the reasons for change and its importance and urgency.
    3. Articulating a vision – developing and communicating a vision of the future, which illustrates the benefits of the change.
    4. Generating commitment to the vision
    5. Institutionalising the change – This involves continually reinforcing the new ways and finding ways to communicate, celebrate and reward achievement.
    1. (I) (III) and (V) only
    2. (II) (IV) and (V) only
    3. All of the above
    4. None
  1. For change to be effective, it needs to be effectively implemented. Many organisations seek to use change agents to facilitate change. Which of the following is correct?
    1. A change agent is an individual or group that helps to bring about strategic change in an organisation.
    2. The change agent must possess the skills to manage the transition process, but must also have the determination to see the change through.
    3. Outsiders, such as consultants, may share in change agency and have the responsibility for driving and ‘selling’ the change.
    4. All of the above

  1. The role of the change agent varies depending on the brief they are given. It may include:
    1. Defining the problem
    2. Examining what causes the problem and considering how this can be overcome
    3. Suggesting possible solutions
    4. All of the above
  1. A change agent needs to have the following attributes such as:
    1. Questions the past and challenge old assumptions and beliefs.
    2. Needs to reduce uncertainty associated with the change situation and encourage position action.
    3. Can manipulate and exploit triggers for change.
    4. All of the above
  1. Although a change agent can be selected from within the organisation which is experiencing change, many organisations choose to use external consultants as change agents. The advantages of using an external change agent include:
    1. Expertise – An external agent may need to be brought in because the organisation doesn’t have the capabilities or skills required internally.
    2. Best practice – An external agent can recommend ‘best practice’ approaches, drawing on their experience from working with other organisations.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. Strategic changes may often raise ethical issues, and change managers need to consider the ethical implications when assessing the suitability and acceptability of a proposed change.
    1. True
    2. False
  1. The process of change often raises serious questions of ethics and value. Having a consultation process in advance of any planned change programme is important because:
    1. it is often seen as ethically worthwhile in its own right, empowering and enabling people who otherwise might see their individual rights over-ridden.
    2. it can be argued that many of the areas where conflicts of value and ethics occur come about due to inadequate consultation processes.
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. In the process of consultation, the most important parties that need to be consulted are:
    1. Those who have sufficient power and influence to drive forward or hold up the change process
    2. Those who are most vulnerable to any potential changes
    3. Both A&B
    4. None
  1. When a business is in terminal decline and faces closure or takeover, there is a need for rapid and extensive change in order to achieve cost reduction and revenue generation. This is a _________.
    1. Turnaround strategy
    2. Divestment
    3. Change management
    4. None

  1. Elements of Turnaround strategy are:
    1. Crisis stabilization
    2. Management changes
    3. Communication with stakeholders
    4. Attention to target markets
    5. Concentration of effort
    6. Financial restructuring
    7. Prioritisation
    1. (I) (III) and (VI) only
    2. (II) (IV) and (V) only
    3. All of the above
    4. None
  1. During a turnaround strategy It is likely that new managers will be required, especially at the strategic apex. The reasons for this are:
    1. The old management allowed the situation to deteriorate and may be held responsible by key stakeholders.
    2. Experience of turnaround management may be required.
    3. Managers brought in from outside will not be prisoners of the old paradigm.
    4. A directive approach to change management will probably be required.
    5. All of the above
  1. Strategic change – is ‘the proactive management of change in organisations to achieve clearly defined strategic objectives or to allow the organisation to experiment in areas where it is not possible to define strategic objectives precisely.’
    1. The above definition is correct
    2. The above definition is incorrect
  1. Steps in the change management process include:
    1. Strategic planning and design: form a change management team, define the vision and strategy, design a programme.
    2. Strategy implementation: communicate the vision and implementation to staff, manage staff responses and lead them through the change; maintain momentum.
    3. Evaluation and readjustment: look at the results, track performance against targets, modify structure if necessary, plan for the future but continue to monitor performance.
    4. All of the above

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